Knowledge Management in Learning Organization Context
Jann Hidajat Tjakraatmadja
As part of my assignment, and as reference if somebody need it. for notes: original book written in Indonesian, and I am sorry if I did some mistakes in translation. In my real summary, there are some graphics and chart, but none in here, sorry again.. ^_^
Chapter 1. New Paradigm Of Knowledge Era
There are 3 era of change (Alvin Toffler, “The Third Wave”, 1980), manual (Physic), Industry (Machine) and Knowledge. In knowledge era, we can find 3 characteristics of this era, first, its easy to find but also it easiest to out of date, second the complexity of problems and last is the change of situation that impacted organization is unpredictable.
Knowledge era need new organization that has ability to change with the times. It also need mature human with global competency, ethical and creative. At last, this new organization and mature human need conducive neighborhood for supporting the change.
Chapter II. Why Indonesian’s reformation is very slow?
When Asia crisis attack, Indonesian declare its reformation. But, until now the reformation doesn’t show the speed as expected. the criteria to valuate these reformation is comfortability to do business in a particular country. there are 10 indicators: the easiness to: start business, get license, employer availability and rules, property, loan access, investor protection, tax, inter country trading, contract clause and exit strategy. Indonesia did not have all of these, because of some reasons below:
1. Our nation is losing sensitivity (dead) taste. Some company is in comfort zone and doesn’t know how to react for the successful future.
2. Reform of our nation too far. The reformation gave too much freedom, and forgot to freedom set boundaries or restriction, while Indonesian mentality is still in “teenager” phase
3. Communities are losing their identities. Indonesia lost its patient and wisdom, it also lost confidence.
4. Our society is obsessed by the past glory. Tradition should not become barriers to success.
5. Short-term thinking.
6. Our nation is still getting used to justify habits than the truth.
7. Human capital has not yet reached “critical mass”.
8. The crisis of true leadership. Leader should serve his people (servant leadership), Indonesian has not found one yet.
Chapter III. Knowledge and Human Learning Process
According to Nonaka and Hirotaka, for supporting information era, an organization needs to have explicit knowledge (know how) and tacit knowledge (know why) continuously. Knowledge comes from collectible information that connected systematically and meaningful. Information derives from analyzed data and meaningful. Human kept information in their neurons that connected systematically when problems came, and created understanding and improve through experience, practice and learning process. Human has 3 knowledge; cultural, tacit and explicit knowledge.
Intelligence is human mental ability to create, get, achieve or integrate their knowledge. Intelligence improve capability act effectively, do right and rational. Competency in working world derives from motif, character, self-concept, knowledge and skill. Competency type is technical competency and behavior competency.
Naturally, human change, physically and mentally. When learning process touch human minds and human soul, it called double loop, but if knowledge only touch human minds, it called single loop learning.
Human position in organization
Organization need asset, asset could be tangible asset (machines, building, land) and intangible asset (human capital, knowledge, culture). Organization potential asset is learning human. There are 2 types of learning, unlearning (leave old habit/concept) and pro-learning (understanding new knowledge). For supporting learning process, huma need 7 abilities (Sinamo, 2005),
1. Ability to think perceptional-rational
2. Ability to think creative and imaginative
3. Ability to think critical-argumentative
4. Ability to choose from alternative
5. Ability to do freely
6. Ability to feel
7. Ability to respond
There are some reason that organization fail to change, there are: (Raka, 2000)
1. No sense of urgency
2. There is no agent of change
3. Unclear vision and mission
4. Less vision and mission socialization
5. Unable to reduce obstacle of change
6. Not systematic and consistency of change management
7. Too fast to feel it has been successfully
8. Unsuccessful to change company culture
So, to be success, learning organization needed:
1. Competent employees
2. Organization media
3. Leader as learning catalyst
4. Trust and learning culture
5. IT availability, organization structure and reward system
Chapter IV. Individual and Organization learning model
Individual learning model:
1. Single loop (a) and double loop learning (b), Argyris (1985)
2. Jann Hidajat individual learning model (2001)
Learning individual has learning ability and change. Individual must learn his environment (outside in) and also must actualize himself (inside-out).
Employee’s competencies are intellectual competency, emotional competency and social competency.
Learning organization is organization that has capability to change continuously and improve their capabilities because the employees have commitment and individual competency to learn and share knowledge.
Learning organization model, Nonaka dan Hirotaka (1995)
Organization as knowledge process creation: converting between the personal, tacit knowledge of individuals who produce creative insight, and shared, explicit knowledge, which the organization needs to develop new product and innovations.
Learning organization model Jann Hidajat (2001)
The concept are: (1) Learning Organization Single Loop where organization could integrate knowledge through thinking process (intellectual and emotional), (2) Learning organization Double Loop where organization could integrate intellectual, emotional and spiritual simultaneous through thinking process and soul.
Chapter V. Knowledge Management in Learning Organization context
Knowledge management becomes company successful factor because the new economic era will refer to the knowledge era. Knowledge management represents a progressive logic of meaning beyond information management, because it is influenced by the quality of work environment and by IT. Knowledge management is seen as the embodiment of integration and the culmination method of existing organization.
Intelligence learning organization is an organization that has capability to growth its strength continuously based on knowledge and service. 3 era of learning paradigm shift:
1. TQM paradigm era: focus to build working process and get zero defect, high quality and continuous improvement (kaizen)
2. Learning organization paradigm era: focus to thinking patterns
3. Institutional learning discipline paradigm era: knowledge as learning organization discipline
Chapter VI. Three Pillars of Learning Organization
Learning individual pillar. Mature people have 3 characteristic, intellectual maturity, emotional maturity and social maturity. People successfulness depends on thinking process and soul process. Thinking process has 4 steps, observation process, self-reflection process, change of thinking way and actualization process. Soul process (Double loop learning) steps are change of vision process, paradigm alignment process, understanding of “why” and knowledge of care “why”.
Learning organization pillar. There is no big different between learning individual and learning organization, the difference are quantity and institutional process. Learning organization also need double learning loop (vertical) to create culture/habit and become “the place” for individual. And in the end, organization-thinking process will create new tacit knowledge and then change tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge.
Knowledge path transformation Pillar
Knowledge path transformation function is to combine and synergize individual knowledge become organization human capital.
5 learning discipline (Senge, 1990): personal mastery discipline, sharing vision, mentally model, systematic thinking and learning team.
Chapter VII. Learning Organization Building
1. Foundation: Trust and Learning culture
a. Trust is a foundation to build understanding, tolerant, positive attitude, and ethical behaviors.
b. Learning culture is defined as value of trust or daily activity that create sharing and knowledge combination between organization employees.
2. First pillar: Learning skills. Skills needed are skill to solve the problems, using new methodology, learning from the past, learning from success (benchmarking) and skill to transfer knowledge to other people.
3. Second pillar: learning facilities, consist of: systemic information, organization structure and rewards. Systemic information is needed to give easy access to knowledge sources around the world. Organization structure is needed to create quality habitat in learning organization, it will impact employee’s relationship effectiveness. Rewards use for formal recognition
4. Roof: learning discipline as protection from internal negative environment or external negative environment.
5. Enabler: leader quality. A leader has 4 functions, as informant, as visionary, as coaching and as agent of change.
Learning organization outcome is Human Capital. Human capital formula:
= Media * Moderator *Σ (Employee generic competency)
While human capital dimension consist of intellectual asset, credibility asset and social asset.
Chapter VIII. Empirical Study of Learning Organization Building Concept Implementation
5 learning discipline by Senge (1990) need learning habitat or knowledge transformation paths of learning organization. Some obstacles in building learning habitat are:
1. Personal obstacles, especially intellectual maturity ad emotional maturity
2. Obstacles from the lack of relational learning support (trust, learning culture and leadership)
3. Obstacle from the lack of managerial support
4. Obstacle of learning infrastructure
An empirical study showed:
1. Trust and learning culture will improve the quality of learning habitat
2. There is correlation between trust, learning culture and the quality of learning habitat
3. Good leadership could strengthen trust and learning culture
4. Good leadership could improve employee maturity
5. Individual learning process is organization learning process starting point
6. Learning organization process could happen by sharing knowledge within employee
In not supporting learning habitat, the increasing of employee generic competency will decrease human capital value. At this condition, great leadership is needed; reward could also used as motivator. In this condition, information availability could impact knowledge transformation process.
In good supporting learning habitat leader’s intervention, organization structure, rewards and information availability could give negative impact to employee generic competency to human capital competency.
Chapter IX. Getting Started
Learning Organization = Leadership * Learning Foundation * learning Skill * learning Facilities * learning discipline
Learning Organization = Leadership * performance * Knowledge Sharing * Explicit Knowledge * Implementation
4 principles to success:
2. Start from the small
3. Set target
4. Spread crisis issue to make other employee realize about change
Practical steps to start build Learning Organization is:
1. Decide pilot project
2. Implementation steps
a. R1: building individual learning skill to achieve personal mastery
b. R2: building learning team capability to improve affectivities process of knowledge sharing
c. R3: Building learning organization capability, to get Human Capital
3. Maintaining profound change process at every step.
I hope this post helpful and give some guidance, since I write this summary without read every sentences and every words in the book, a little bit exhausted for reading more than 300 pages, right?? :d
But it’s enough to get great grade. Perhaps in my next Knowledge Management posting I should write my own opinion and analysis, since my final exam for this module is create Knowledge management program in my company/was my company.